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Art movements from the beginning of XXth century

Fauvism - 1905; Was represented by strong and bright colors. One of the well known representatives was Henry Matisse. It is considered the bridge between realism and abstraction.

Die Brücke (The Bridge) - 1905; It was a group of 4 expressionist German artists from Dresden who brought a significant contribution to modern art. They used strong colors and print-making. Along with a second group of painters from München called Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) brought an important contribution to the Expressionism.

Expressionism - 1905; With origins in Germany was described by the emphasis on emotional experience in detriment of physical reality. Therefore this movement was mirrored by emotion-provoking images.

Cubism - 1908; It was considered a step from realism to abstraction. French painters Braque and Picasso were the representatives of this influential movement of the XXth century. In this style objects are broken and reassembled into an abstract view, the subject being depicted from many viewpoints.

Futurism - 1909, Italy; It was characterised by representation of movement through abstract images. Futurist painters depicted views about innovation, technology, industry, youth and violence. They knew very well to promote themselves using slogans about escaping from the past and welcoming the new. Futurism brought implications to art involving painting, sculpture, ceramics, different areas of design, architecture and cooking.

Rayism (Rayonism) - 1910; Was a current developed by Russians Mikhail Larionov and Natalya Gontcherova. They painted rays reflected from an object, which looked like various lines at the intersection of color and light with different objects.

Metaphysical painting - 1910; This movement described painting beyond physical reality using light, deep shadows, surprisingness and mistery.

Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) - 1911, Germany; This movement was born after Russian painter Vassily Kandinsky wasn’t allowed to exhibit one of his paintings ‘The last Judgement’ to an exhibition. Painters in that time stressed the ideas of spirituality and symbolism of colors. Kandinsky considered blue the color of spirituality. Having influences into Cubism, Fauvism and Rayonism, Der Blaue Reiter paved its way to abstraction.

The Camden Town Group - 1911, England; It was a group of realistic painters influenced by the French art and the Impressionism and Post-Impressionism.

The Group of Seven - 1912, Canada; This group of landscape painters influenced by Post-Impressionism were co-workers at the same Canadian design company.

Vorticism - 1912; England; This was a short-lived modernist movement with accents on motion and influences from Cubism and Futurism, geometries being preffered while nudes and landscapes being rejected.

Suprematism - 1913, Russia; This movement was characterised by basic geometric forms (circle, rectangle, square, triangle, lines) of limited range of colors which described rather feelings than objects.

Dada - 1916, Switzerland (with Romanian and German foundations); This movement was born as a result of the aversion to war, because war was considered distructive from many perspectives including aesthetics, culture and morality. Dada was also meant to criticise the conflicts and homicides during war.

De Stijl (The Style; Neoplasticism) - 1917, Netherlands; This movement was characterised by diagonal, vertical or horizontal geometry and only the use of primary colors (red, yellow, blue), black and white.

Novembergruppe (Novembergroup) - 1918, Germany; This movement was named related to Weimar revolution dated November, after the World War I and its purpose was to create a union in art, architecture, city planning and crafts, between the artist and the worker. Novembergroup was a mixture of styles which made its description difficult.

De Ploeg (The Plough) - 1918, Netherlands; This movement was created by a group of young artists who shared their new ideas about art, architecture and literature, with influences from Impressionism, Constructivism, Expressionism.

Constructivism - 1919, Russia; This movement promoted the idea that the art had to be functional, rather than only created for aesthetic purposes. The Constructivist style was related to sculptors Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner and their works with mechanical looks.

UNOVIS (abbr. in Russian; The Champions of the New Art)- 1919; It was a group of influential art students from Vitebsk Art School, led by Kazimir Malevich who wished to express their new ideas about art. Their concepts (connected to Suprematism) had a significant effect on the Russian avant-garde and abroad.

Bauhaus - 1919, Germany; This movement was the most influential among the modern styles, with a significant impact in Europe and USA. Its purpose was to create the link between fine art and manufacturing.

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